Air defense systems


MEADS Medium Extended Air Defense Missile Systems

MEADS is a mobile Air and Missile Defense System that is easily transportable, tactically mobile and uses the hit-to-kill PAC-3 MSE Missile to defeat tactical ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, unmanned aerial vehicles and aircraft, providing full 360-degree engagement. Proven hit-to-kill technology provides the best defense against tactical ballistic missiles (TBM) armed with weapons of mass destruction.
The MEADS systems uses the PAC-3 MSE missile. The ‘hit-to-kill’ PAC-3 Missile is the world’s most advanced, capable and powerful theater air defense missile. It defeats the entire threat spectrum of tactical ballistic missiles (TBMs) carrying weapons of mass destruction, advanced cruise missiles and aircraft.
Lightweight, efficient Major End Items (MEIs) enable strategic and tactical transport. MEADS is C-130/A400M transportable and has excellent cross-country mobility to provide continuous air and missile defense coverage for the maneuver force. The latest U.S. version of the MEADS system uses a FMTV truck chassis with armour cabin.
Command and control vehicles
The MEADS system has four major end items: launcher unit, UHF Surveillance Radar, X-band Multifunction Fire Control Radar, and Battle Management Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence (BMC4I) Tactical Operations Center (TOC). Both radars protect with 360-degree coverage. The TOC implements a revolutionary network-centric open architecture that allows any combination of sensors and launchers to be task organized into a single Air and Missile Defense battle element. Through a capability called “plug-and-fight,” sensors, shooters or other TOCs simply act as nodes on the network. From the TOC, a commander can dynamically add or subtract elements as the situation dictates without shutting the system down.
Combat use
Unlike Patriot, or any other deployed system, the mobile air defense system will be able to destroy all incoming tactical or medium-range ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, unmanned aerial vehicles or aircraft as well as weapons of mass destruction. It provides vastly greater firepower, combat-proven hit-to-kill technology, 360-degree radar coverage, and a plug-and-fight battle management network architecture. Designed to replace Patriot systems in the United States and Nike Hercules systems in Italy, MEADS also meets the “capabilities oriented” requirements of Germany’s air defense concept.
— 360-Degree Protection: MEADS defeats cruises missiles, TBMs, and air-breathing threats attacking from any direction.
— Transportability and Mobility: Lightweight, efficient MEADS Major End Items (MEIs) simplify strategic and tactical transport. MEADS is C-130/A400M transportable and has excellent cross-country mobility.
— Netted-Distributed Architecture with Plug-and-Fight: MEADS provides operational flexibility to tailor battle elements using distributed sensors, launchers, and tactical operations centers (TOCs). Through its plug-and-fight capability, MEADS sensors, shooters, or other TOCs simply act as nodes on the MEADS network. a commander can dynamically add or subtract elements without shutting the system down. A standardized interface extends plug-and-fight to non-MEADS elements. This flexibility is unprecedented for ground-based AMD systems.
— Interoperability: Designed for coalition fighting, MEADS shares communications, with external sensors anddata links such as airborne C3 systems, ACCS, SAMOC, AEGIS, THAAD, and Patriot.
— Survivability and Sustainability: MEADS defends the force and defends itself. High-off-road mobility, dispersion, and availability provide additional protection for the system. ECM resistance and distributed workload increase survivability. Graceful degradation and optimized on-board provisions result in high operational availability. Curring-edge prognostics and diagnostics minimize downtime and reduce resources to sustain fielded systems for extended periods.
— Lower Operation and Sustainment Costs: Advanced logistic design and reliability reduce cost of ownership. No maintenance is required. Using its 360-degree defense capability, the advanced MEADS radars and MSE missile, MEADS defends up to eight times the coverage area with far fewer system assets and significantly reduces demand for deployed personnel and equipment, which reduces demand for airlift.
Patriot MIM-104 surface-to-air defense missile system
The MIM-104 Patriot is a surface-to-air missile (SAM) system, the primary of its kind used by the United States Army and several allied nations. It is manufactured by the U.S. defense contractor Raytheon and derives its name from the radar component of the weapon system. The AN/MPQ-53 at the heart of the system is known as the «Phased array Tracking Radar to Intercept on Target» or the bacronym PATRIOT. The Patriot System replaced the Nike Hercules system as the U.S. Army’s primary High to Medium Air Defense (HIMAD) system, and replaced the MIM-23 Hawk system as the U.S. Army’s medium tactical air defense system. In addition to these roles, Patriot has been given the function of the U.S. Army’s anti-ballistic missile (ABM) system, which is now Patriot’s primary mission.
Missile launcher
The system’s missiles are transported on and launched from the M901 Launching Station, which can carry up to four PAC-2 missiles or up to sixteen PAC-3 missiles.. Each launcher has four missiles. Each container-launcher box is 6.1 m long, 1.09 m wide and 0.99 m high. Weight empty is 794 kg and loaded 1,696 kg.
The Patriot missile is equipped with a track-via-missile (TVM) guidance system. Midcourse correction commands are transmitted to the guidance system from the mobile engagement control centre. The target acquisition system in the missile acquires the target in the terminal phase of flight and transmits the data using the TVM downlink via the ground radar to the engagement control station for final course correction calculations. The course correction commands are transmitted to the missile via the missile track command uplink. The high-explosive 90kg warhead is situated behind the terminal guidance section. The range of the missile is 70km and maximum altitude is greater than 24km. The minimum flight time is the time to arm the missile, which is less than nine seconds, and the maximum flight time is less than three and a half minutes.
The Patriot missile container is mounted on M860 semi-trailers, which are towed by M983 HEMTTs. The Heavy Expanded Mobility Tactical Truck (HEMTT) provides transport capabilities for re-supply of combat vehicles and weapons systems. There are five basic configurations of the HEMTT series trucks: M977 cargo truck with Material Handling Crane (MHC), M978 2500 gallon fuel tanker, M984 wrecker, M983 tractor and M985 cargo truck with MHC. The M983 truck uses an 8×8 chassis and is powered by a Detroit Diesel, MUI, 8V-92TA, V-8 2-stroke litre diesel developing 445 hp at 2,100 rpm. The M860 semi-trailer is tracted by the M983 HEMTT truck, the missiles containers are mounted on the back side of the trailer. The M860 trailer is a two-axle trailerwith turntable steering on which the turntable steering has an automatic locking feature to aid in reversing operations.
Command and control vehicles
The Patriot system has four major operational functions: communications, command and control, radar surveillance, and missile guidance. The four functions combine to provide a coordinated, secure, integrated, mobile air defense system. A battery has six major components: a power plant, radar set, an engagement control station, launcher stations, the antenna mast group, and the interceptors (missiles) themselves.
— The Radar Set provides detection and tracking of targets as well as fire control. The phased array radar helps guide interceptors to their intended targets and is resistant to jamming.
— The Engagement Control Station calculates trajectories for interceptors and controls the launching sequence. As such, it communicates with the launcher stations and other PATRIOT batteries. It is the only manned station in a PATRIOT fire unit.
— The Launcher Stations transport and protect the interceptors (missiles) and provide the platform for the physical launch of the missile.
— The Antenna Mast Group is the main communications backbone for the Patriot unit.
— The Interceptor Missiles: PAC-2 is a proximity fusing missile, whereas PAC-3 has been specifically designed to intercept and destroy missiles by impacting them directly with kinetic energy — “Hit-to-Kill” technology.
The command and control vehicles of Patriot battery is the fire control section, consisting of the AN/MPQ-53 or -65 Radar Set, the AN/MSQ-104 Engagement Control Station (ECS), the OE-349 Antenna Mast Group (AMG), and the EPP-III Electric Power Plant. The radar is mounted on M860 semi-trailers, which are towed by M983 HEMTTs. A Patriot battalion is also equipped with the Information Coordination Central (ICC), a command station designed to coordinate the launches of a battalion and uplink Patriot to the JTIDS or MIDS network. The missile is reloaded by M985E1 truck with a crane on the back.
Combat Use
Once the PATRIOT missile is launched, it will be tracked by the phased array radar set. As the interceptor missile approaches the target, its active seeker will steer the missile to the target. A PAC-2 Patriot missile will detonate in the vicinity of the threat missile whereas a PAC-3 will seek to impact the warhead of the threat ballistic missile.
S-400 Triumf
The S-400 Triumph SA-21 is a long range surface-to-air missile systems produced by Almaz-Antey. The S-400 Trumph is intended to engage, ECM, radar-picket, director area, reconnaissance, strategic and tactical aircraft, tactical and theatre ballistic missiles, medium-range ballistic missiles and other current and future air attack assets at a maximum range of 400 km, and a altitude of up to 30 km. The S-400 Triumph can also intended Tomahawk cruise missiles and other types of missiles, including precision-guided ones, as well as AWACS aircraft, at ranges of up to 400 km. It can also detect stealth aircraft and other targets at all altitudes of their combat employment and at maximum ranges. This air defense missile system can simultaneously engage 36 targets. Work of the development of the S-400 Triumph air defense missile system is a visible embodiment of cooperation among weapons developers.
Missile launcher unit
One SPU launcher had four missile containers; each container could house one 48N6E or four 9M96 surface-to-air missiles. The S-400 Triumph can be used with a semi-mobile package of towed trailer mounted radars and missile. The S-400 Triumph with the truck 6×6 BAZ-64022 is a semi-trailer arrangement, with the forward booms splayed when deployed as stabilisers.
The S-400 Triumph uses the 9M96E and 9M96E2 missiles. The S-400 Triumph can also use the 48N6E missile of the S-300 PMU-1 system and 48N6E2 missiles of the S-300 PMU-2 Favorit system. The 48N6E missile was successfully test-fired the 12 February 1999. The possibility of using AD missiles with various effective ranges ensures the system modular capability that makes it possible to set up layered air defense and non-strategic anti-missiles defense systems. The S-400 missile has a maximum range of 400 km and can hit all air targets wit high accuracy.
Truck tractor
The trailer of the system S-400 Triumph is tractor drawn by the Russian truck 6×6 BAZ-64022, but the S-400 can be also mounted to the truck Almaz 5P90SE or Almaz 5P90TMU.
Command and control vehicles
The S-400 Triumph system command and control assets and AD missiles can cooperate with various automated control systems and radar facilities. Along with the new AD missiles the system can uses the S-300 PMU AD missiles. The S-400 Triumph uses the new Engagement Radar System 92N2E Grave Stone carried by a new 8 x 8 MZKT-7930 vehicle, the battery acquisition radar 96L6 Cheese Board also carried by a 8×8 truck MZKT-7930. new 3D phased array acquisition radar is employed, the 91N6E (NATO Code Big Bird) derived from the 64N6E2, and the 40V6M/MD mast is an available option. The 55K6E command post is employed, carried by an 8 x 8 Ural 532301 truck.The command post is used to control air space surveillance data from each individual launcher vehicle. It controls and monitors long-range surveillance radar, tracks airborne threats, prioritises the threats, and coordinates all batteries. Optional acquisition radars cited for the S-400 include the 59N6 Protivnik GE and 67N6 Gamma DE in the L-band, but also the 1L119 Nebo SVU in the VHF band. The Nebo SVU has a claimed capability against stealth aircraft. In addition to further acquisition radar types, the S-400 has been trialled with the Topaz Kolchuga M, KRTP-91 Tamara / Trash Can, and 85V6 Orion / Vega emitter locating systems, the aim being to engage emitting targets without emitting from the acquisition radars, or if the acquisition radars have been jammed. In June, 2008, the manufacturer diclosed the integration of the 1RL220VE, 1L222 and 86V6 Orion emitter locating systems with the S-400.

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